Impact of substrate microstructure on self-induced nucleation and properties of GaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted MBE

Marta Sobanska ,  Kamil Klosek ,  Aleksandra Wierzbicka ,  Jolanta Borysiuk ,  Slawomir Kret ,  Giorgi Tchutchulashvili ,  Sylwia Gierałtowska ,  Elżbieta Lusakowska ,  Piotr Nowakowski ,  Zbigniew R. Zytkiewicz 

Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 02-668, Poland

Recent in-situ studies of growth of GaN nanowires (NWs) by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on silicon by Hestroffer et al. [1] show that a massive self-induced nucleation of GaN NWs starts only after partial amorphization of the silicon nitride film that inevitably forms on silicon substrate under nitrogen flux. This result indicates existence of a barrier for GaN nucleation on monocrystalline substrate, so creation of nucleation sites (e.g. by partial amorphization of the substrate) seems to be needed to enhance nucleation rate of GaN NWs.
To explore this effect in a more details we have compared efficiency of self-induced nucleation of GaN NWs on three different substrates, namely on bare c-oriented sapphire, on Si(111) with a native silicon nitride layer and on Si(111) coated with a thin amorphous Al2O3 buffer deposited at low temperature by atomic layer deposition. On all substrates catalyst-free growth of NWs proceeded under the same, highly nitrogen-rich conditions at ~750 oC [2].

Comparison of nucleation kinetics by RHEED showed that no NWs nucleation occurred  on sapphire. This agrees with observation by  Geelhaar et al. [3] who have reported that on the crystalline sapphire NWs do not form under any PAMBE growth conditions. Slow GaN nucleation was observed on partially amorphous silicon nitride film naturally created on the surface of Si(111) due to a high affinity of nitrogen to silicon. Finally, significantly enhanced nucleation of GaN NWs was observed on amorphous Al2O3 buffer. Post growth analysis by scanning and transmission electron microscopy show separated NWs on a bare silicon whereas high density of GaN nuclei are found between NWs grown on Al2O3 buffer (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 Cross-section SEM views of GaN NWs (a) on Si(111) substrates with 2 nm thick amorphous Al2O3 buffer and (b) on bare Si(111).

Energy electron loss spectroscopy was used to check if creation of any AlN islands that might make GaN nucleation on amorphous Al2O3 easier as compared to crystalline sapphire took place in our case. However, precise analysis of oxygen and nitrogen distributions across the GaN/Al2O3 interface eliminated such explanation. Instead, we consider defects in Al2O3 buffer as possible GaN nucleation sites. Localization of Ga adatoms at these defects should speed up creation of supercritical nuclei and lead to shorter NWs incubation times.
Finally, arrangement on the substrate as well as structural and optical properties of GaN NWs are studied and correlated with microstructure of substrates on which they are grown.

This work was partly supported by the European Union within European Regional Development Fund, through grant Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08). MS thanks for support from European Social Fund through Human Capital Program and local authorities (Samorząd Województwa Mazowieckiego - „Potencjał naukowy wsparciem dla gospodarki Mazowsza – stypendia dla doktorantów”).

[1] K. Hestroffer et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 212107 (2012).
[2] A. Wierzbicka et al., Nanotechnology 24, 035703 (2013).
[3] L. Geelhaar et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093113 (2007).

Legal notice
  • Legal notice:

    Copyright (c) Pielaszek Research, all rights reserved.
    The above materials, including auxiliary resources, are subject to Publisher's copyright and the Author(s) intellectual rights. Without limiting Author(s) rights under respective Copyright Transfer Agreement, no part of the above documents may be reproduced without the express written permission of Pielaszek Research, the Publisher. Express permission from the Author(s) is required to use the above materials for academic purposes, such as lectures or scientific presentations.
    In every case, proper references including Author(s) name(s) and URL of this webpage: must be provided.


Related papers
  1. Growth and properties of inclined GaN nanowires on Si(001) substrates by PAMBE
  2. Optimization of nitrogen plasma source parameters for growth of GaN by MBE
  3. An influence of parallel electric field on the dispersion relation of graphene – a new route to Dirac logics
  4. Mechanism of in-plane orientation of GaN self-induced nanowires grown on Si(111) substrates 
  5. Bulk GaAs growth by Contactless Liquid Phase Electroepitaxy
  6. Surface structure and diffusion of Si and C adatoms on bare SiC(0001) and SiC(0001) surfaces- density functional theory studies
  7. Modelling of X-Ray diffraction curves for GaN nanowires on Si(111)
  8. Measurements of strain in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy
  9. MBE growth, structural, magnetic, and electric properties of (In,Ga)As-(Ga,Mn)As core-shell nanowires
  10. MBE growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111) substrates for gas sensor applications 
  11. Electronic and optical properties – As and As+Sb doped ZnO grown by PA-MBE
  12. Hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods for solar cells applications
  13. Epitaxial growth and characterization of zinc oxide nanorods obtained by the hydro-thermal method
  14. Growth of zinc oxide and dielectric films using Atomic Layer Deposition method from organic precursors
  15. Grown ZnMgO/ZnO/ZnMgO heterostructures on p-type Si(111) by MBE method
  16. Dual-acceptor doped p-ZnO:(As+Sb)/n-GaN heterojunctions grown by PA-MBE as a highly selective UV detector
  17. Influence of substrate on crystallographic quality of AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by MBE
  18. Resonant photoemission study of Sm atoms on ZnO surface
  19. Damage of gallium arsenide created after irradiation by ultra-short VUV laser pulse
  20. Investigation of strain and lattice parameters distribution in epitaxial laterally overgrown InGaN/GaN structures 
  21. Innowacyjne technologie wielofunkcyjnych materiałów i struktur dla nanoelektroniki, fotoniki, spintroniki i technik sensorowych (InTechFun).
  22. TEM investigation of processed  InGaN based laser grown by PAMBE on bulk GaN substrate
  23. Inhomogeneities of InGaN/GaN MOVPE multi quantum wells grown with two temperatures process studied by transmission electron microscopy.
  24. Thin films of ZnS and ZnSe by Atomic Layer Deposition for light sensor applications
  25. Structure of Si:Mn annealed under enhanced stress conditions
  26. ZnO thin films for organic/inorganic heterojunctions
  27. Gd atoms on Si (111) surface – AFM and photoemission study
  28. Effect of high pressure annealing on defect structure of GaMnAs
  29. Wide band-gap II-VI semiconductors for optoelectronic applications
  30. Liquid phase growth and characterization of laterally overgrown GaSb epitaxial layers
  31. Distribution of strain in laterally overgrown GaAs layers determined by x-ray diffraction
  32. Image processing of HREM micrograph for determination size distribution of Co nanocrystals in Cu matrix
  33. Quantitative study of Cd atoms distribution in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots superlattice by HRTEM
  34. Growth and characterization of thin films of ZnO by Atomic Layer Epitaxy
  35. Influence of n-type doping on light emission properties of GaN layers and GaN-based quantum well structures
  36. Interaction of Mn and Ti atoms with GaN surface - a resonant photoemission study
  37. Structure modifications in materials irradiated by ultra-short pulses of VUV free electron laser
  38. Evidence of threading and misfit dislocations in partially relaxed InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures
  39. Quantitative transmission electron microscopy investigation of localised stress in heterostructures
  40. Cathodoluminescence study of n-type doped GaN epilayers and GaN/InGaN quantum well structures
  41. Structure characterisation of MBE-grown ZnSe:Cr layers
  42. Medium scale modeling of the CdTe/ZnTe islands the empirical potential and finite element approach
  43. Modelling of indium rich clusters in MOCVD InGaN/GaN multilayers
  44. Novel substrates for heteroepitaxy by lateral overgrowth technology
  45. Gallium nitride surface formation and modification by Mn deposition - photoemission studies with use of synchrotron radiation
  46. Nanostructure of laser annealed Ge-implanted near-surface Si layers
  47. Defect structure of Sn-implanted Si crystal annealed by nanosecond laser pulse

Presentation: Oral at 17th International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy - ICCGE-17, Topical Session 3, by Marta Sobanska
See On-line Journal of 17th International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy - ICCGE-17

Submitted: 2013-04-15 15:44
Revised:   2013-07-23 17:34
© 1998-2022 pielaszek research, all rights reserved Powered by the Conference Engine