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Bulk GaAs growth by Contactless Liquid Phase Electroepitaxy

Pawel Strak 1Stanisław Krukowski 1,2Zbigniew R. Zytkiewicz 3

1. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Pressure Physics (UNIPRESS), Sokolowska 29/37, Warszawa 01-142, Poland
2. University of Warsaw, Interdisciplinary Centre for Mathematical and Computational Modelling (ICM), Pawinskiego 5a, Warsaw 02-106, Poland
3. Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 02-668, Poland


LPEE has been found to be very effective for the growth of bulk crystals of multicomponent semiconductors. In particular, the LPEE grown crystals show compositional uniformity that is not attainable by other solution or melt growth methods (see [1] for a review). Unfortunately, as shown experimentally [2] and theoretically [3, 4] thickness of crystals feasible by LPEE is limited to ~3-4 mm. This is due to Joule heating in the body of growing crystal, which finally leads to complete termination of the growth. In this work we present a design for the growth of bulk III-V crystals by electroepitaxy which avoids severe drawbacks of standard LPEE. This liquid-phase technique allowing one to grow large-size single crystals in nearly isothermal conditions by application of electric current flow is presented. The technique, denoted as contactless liquid-phase electroepitaxy (CLPEE) method paves the way to obtain large-diameter high crystalline quality single crystals with potentially unlimited thickness. Systematic studies of influence of crucible design on uniformity of growth of bulk III-V crystals are reported. We found that CLPEE removes the most important drawback of standard liquid phase electroepitaxy, i.e. limited thickness of crystals being due to superheating of the growing crystals by Joule heat generation. However, the CLPEE method in its simplest version suffers from enhanced growth rate at the center of the crystal, which results from majority of electric current flowing to the center of the electrode and dragging solute species [5]. A number of various designs of growth crucible are examined showing that optimized triple-electrode system is capable to provide perfectly uniform growth rate distribution over a large portion of the surface of the growing crystal [6]. In this way the main obstacle in development of the CLPEE technique is removed allowing application of electroepitaxy to obtain large diameter high crystalline quality single crystals with potentially unlimited thickness.


[1] T. Bryskiewicz, Prog. Crystal Growth and Characterization 12 (1986) 29.

[2] Z.R. Zytkiewicz, J. Crystal Growth 146 (1995) 283.

[3] Z. R. Zytkiewicz, J. Cryst. Growth 172 (1997) 259.

[4] P. Strak, Z.R. Zytkiewicz, K. Sakowski, and S. Krukowski, Cryst. Res. Technol. 45 (2010)


[5] Z. R. Zytkiewicz, P. Strak, S. Krukowski, Crystal Growth and Design  11 (2011) 4684

[6] P. Strak, Z. R.Zytkiewicz, S. Krukowski, J. Crystal Growth, 355 (2012) 1

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Presentation: Poster at 17th International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy - ICCGE-17, General Session 2, by Pawel Strak
See On-line Journal of 17th International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy - ICCGE-17

Submitted: 2013-04-24 14:23
Revised:   2013-04-24 14:23