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Li4Ti5O12/CNT as an anode material for LiBs - structural, morphological and electrochemical studies

Monika Michalska 

Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME), Wólczyńska, Warsaw 01-919, Poland


One of the promising material to replace graphitic anodes in lithium secondary batteries is lithium titanium oxide – Li4Ti5O12 (LTO). It has good structural stability, with an almost negligible volume change during the Li+ insertion and extraction processes, which suggests theoretically unlimited cycle life. Li4Ti5O12 features a flat operating potential of about 1.55 V vs. Li/Li+, which is higher than the reduction potential of the most electrolyte solvents – preventing SEI formation and metallic lithium plating on the electrode’s surface. These characteristics make that Li4Ti5O12 is excellent material for anode in lithium-ion batteries with high safety, long life and reliability.

The major disadvantage of Li4Ti5O12 is its poor rate capability - mainly due to its low electronic conductivity and poor lithium ions diffusivity. The conductivity of lithium-titanium oxide can be greatly improved by various surface modifications, cation doping or preparing this material in the nanocrystalline form. In this work we present the surface modification of LTO using carbon nanotubes (CNT).

The three-step solid state synthesis including ball-milling process of nanocrystalline lithium titanium oxide (Li4Ti5O12) of spinel structure and surface modification of LTO grains by a new low temperature method will be presented.

All the synthesized materials have been characterized by several methods: XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TEM. The electrochemical performance of LTO/n-CNT composite powders were examined by chronopotentiometry in three electrode Swagelok cells. The results of all measurements will be presented at the Conference.


This work was supported The National Science Centre through the research grant DEC-2011/03/N/ST5/04389.


1.     M. Krajewski, M. Michalska, B. Hamankiewicz, D. Ziolkowska, K. P. Korona, J. B. Jasinski, M. Kaminska, L. Lipinska, A. Czerwinski, Li4Ti5O12 modified with Ag nanoparticles as an advanced anode material in lithium-ion batteries, Journal of Power Sources 245 (2014) 764-771.

2. Monika Michalska, Michał Krajewski, Dominika Ziolkowska, Bartosz Hamankiewicz, Mariusz Andrzejczuk, Ludwika Lipinska, Krzysztof Korona, Andrzej Czerwinski, Influence of milling time in solid-state synthesis on structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of Li4Ti5O12 of spinel structure, Powder Technology 266 (2014) 372-377.


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Presentation: Poster at Nano PL 2014, Symposium A, by Monika Michalska
See On-line Journal of Nano PL 2014

Submitted: 2014-04-20 19:54
Revised:   2014-09-28 20:48