Comparative study of superthin TiNx layer by XPS and low energy SIMS

Jerzy Ciosek 1Waldemar Mróz 1Michał Ćwil 2,3Sylwia Burdyńska 1Artur Prokopiuk 1Marcin Jedyński 1

1. Military University of Technology, Institute of Optoelectronics (IOE), Kaliskiego 2, Warszawa 00-908, Poland
2. Industrial Institute of Electronics (PIE), Dluga, Warszawa 00-241, Poland
3. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Physics, Koszykowa 75, Warszawa 00-662, Poland


Gradient-index (GRIN) materials have received wide attention in material sciences for considering the effect of materials graded inhomogeneity on the optical, piezoelectric and nonlinear effects as well as due to MEMS applications.

Gradient index composite structures based on TiNx materials are interesting for photonic, optoelectronic and sensor techniques. The TiNx layers were deposited on Si-wafers (100) by laser ablation of a Ti target with different nitrogen gas pressure up to 3x10-2 mbar. The layer thickness of 22 nm and composition was controlled by parameters of the excimer laser pulses (wavelength at 193 nm) and nitrogen gas pressure.

The sample was annealed using Rapid Thermal Process (RTP) at 600oC in Ar flow by 10 min. A profile of TiN refractive index and a nitrogen concentration depends on process parameters. Surface and interfacial layer-substrate energies dominate both a bulk and a strain-energy term, which encourages the formation of metastable phase with a low inner-energy. The TiNx layers show hydrogen and oxygen high sensitivity and change of Ti/TiN ratio at as prepared - and RTP processed - sample. XPS and SIMS was applied to compositional study of TiNx layers. Samples were analysed by AFM and spectroscopic methods. 

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Presentation: Poster at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2007, Symposium J, by Marcin Jedyński
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2007

Submitted: 2007-04-10 12:23
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44
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