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Training, constraints, and high-cycle magneto-mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape-memory alloys
|Markus Chmielus 1, Volodymyr A. Chernenko 2, William B. Knowlton 1,3, Gernot Kostorz 4, Peter Mullner 1|
1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, 1910 University Dr., Boise ID-83725, United States
Magneto-mechanical experiments with a rotating magnetic field of 0.97 T were performed with a Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal. Periodic strains exceeding 1% were recorded over a hundred million magneto-mechanical cycles. The twin-microstructure of the cycled crystal was characterized using atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. In the center of the sample, no twin boundaries were found. At the sample edges, the microstructure consists of a dense twin pattern. The results are compared with previous experiments of differently trained crystals. It is distinguished between "less efficient training" which results in a nearly self-accomodated martensite and "efficient training" which results in a nearly single variant state. The evolution of twin-microstructure is discussed in terms of training, magneto-mechanical cycling, and extrinsic constraints imposed by the experimental setting. It is concluded that the response of a magnetic shape-memory alloy to an alternating excitation depends strongly on the initial twin-microstructure established through training. In particular, a less efficent training results in a twin-microstructure which can adapt to extrinsic constraints resulting in continued large periodic magnetic-field-induced deformation. In contrast, the twin-microstructure of an efficiently trained crystal cannot adapt to extrinsic constraints resulting in early failure by fracture.
Presentation: Oral at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2007, Symposium E, by Markus Chmielus
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2007
Submitted: 2007-05-14 16:03 Revised: 2009-06-07 00:44