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From the mine to the tops: Graphene oxide – the mysterious derivative of flake graphene. Properties and applications

Ludwika Lipińska ,  Justyna Ostrowska 

Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME), Warszawa 01919, Poland


The properties of graphene will be characterized and various methods of its preparation will  be briefly described. Among the "top down" techniques the chemical methods are considered as most promising for mass production of flake graphene dedicated to a very wide range of applications, including composites. There are many ways to achieve effective, "wet" exfoliation of graphite. Among them the oxidation-reduction method is the closest to an industrial scale. In addition, the graphene oxide the intermediate product has very interesting properties and many potential applications. It shows a strong luminescence, after decorating with metal nanoparticles is gaining catalytic properties. It is an excellent material for the construction of various types of sensors. It has outstanding adsorption properties, provides an excellent platform for the deposition of various types of molecules e.g. biological. The second presented method is liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in organic solvents by means of ultrasounds. Both methods have advantages and limitations. The method of liquid phase exfoliation gives flakes with very small number of defects, but thicker consisting of several layers of carbon. Furthermore, the efficiency of this method is still low, it usually uses expensive chemical reagents. Oxidation-reduction method is very efficient and allows the receiving monatomic carbon layers, which are characterized by a very high transparency. Its a limitation is the difficulty in obtaining complete reduction, which results in decreasing of the electrical conductivity of reduced graphene oxide. Wet methods are ideal for the preparation of loose graphene powders of high specific surface area, thin films on various substrates and graphene paper. The most important directions of applications of flake graphene will be shown on the basis of market research "The Global Market of Graphene (Forecast from 2010 to 2020)."


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Related papers

Presentation: Keynote at Nano PL 2014, Symposium A, by Ludwika Lipińska
See On-line Journal of Nano PL 2014

Submitted: 2014-03-24 19:02
Revised:   2014-05-23 17:20