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Carbon Nanoparticle Surface Modification for Sensor Development

Katherine Lawrence 1Norahim Ibrahim 1,2Frank Marken 1Tony D. James 

1. University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Claverton Down, Bath BA2-7AY, United Kingdom
2. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor Bahru 81310, Malaysia


Emperor 2000® carbon nanoparticles are a form of carbon black with surface sodium sulfonate groups. This negative surface coverage is initially converted to positive amine functionality with reaction with a diamine. [1] The aminated carbon nanoparticles can then be subjected to further synthetic reactions.



Figure 1. Diamine functionalisation of Emperor 2000® CNPs [1].



Carbodiimide mediated peptide coupling reactions were employed and a range of small organic molecules were reacted with the aminated surface of the carbon nanoparticles. This resulted in a range of carbon nanoparticles with new surface functionality created via amide bond formation.


Figure 2. Boronic acid binding to terminal diol



By appending molecules with a free catechol unit to the carbon nanoparticles, there is the potential for them to be used for sensing applications.

Dopa-modified carbon nanoparticles have successfully demonstrated pH dependence which has been applied to gas pH sensing. [2] The modified nanoparticles have also been used detect boronic acids as the reaction of catechols and boronic acids is very favourable. [3]

[1] Watkins JD, Lawrence R, Taylor JE et al. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 12 (2010) 4872

[2] Ibrahim NB, Lawrence K, Xia F, James TD, Marken F manuscript submitted to Sensors and Actuators B - Chemical (2011)

[3] Lorand JP, Edwards JO Journal of Organic Chemistry 24 (1959) 769


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Presentation: Short communication at SMCBS'2011 International Workshop, by Katherine Lawrence
See On-line Journal of SMCBS'2011 International Workshop

Submitted: 2011-09-02 16:24
Revised:   2011-09-02 16:24