The properties of biosensors or enzyme biofuel cells are unequivocally influenced by intrinsic characteristics of the used biological recognition element, such as the kinetics of the biocatalytic reaction, the presence of activators/inhibitors, etc. However, apart from these primary considerations which might be improved by screening of a large number of specific biological sources or through dedicated genetic modifications, the design of an intimate electronic communication and the robust fixation of redox enzymes at the electrode interface are crucial for benefiting of any particular characteristics of the biological element.
We have followed several directions for studying and designing new bioelectrochemical interfaces. Key parameters such as mass transport, optimum loading with the chosen enzyme, 3D design of the electrode area as well as maintaining efficient electronic conductivity for the entire 3D electrode surface were investigated at modified graphite electrodes . Hence, such materials are considered promising for improving the performances of a bi-enzymatic membrane-less biofuel cell .
Recently, new composite materials consisting of double-anchored carbon microfibers (CF) decorated either with carbon-nanotubes (CNT) or carbon-nanoballs demonstrate potential application as biocathode, by their modification with horse-radish peroxidase (HRP), as demonstrated by specific properties for reduction of H2O2, as it was previously observed also for micro-peroxidase . One more time, these experimental observations clearly emphasize the still-not-fully-explored potential by which nanomaterials might contribute to expanding novel properties and characteristics of certain biological elements.
Dedicated applications of the present electrode architecture will be discussed.
 N. Li, X. Chen, L. Stoica, W. Xia, J. Qian, J. Aßmann, W. Schuhmann, M. Muhler Adv. Mater. 19 2957 (2007).
 L. Stoica, N. Dimcheva, Y. Ackermann, K. Karnicka, D. A. Guschin, P.J. Kulesza, J. Ro¬galski, D. Haltrich, R. Ludwig, L. Gorton, W. Schuhmann Fuel Cells 1 53-62 (2009).
 T. Lötzbeyer, W. Schuhmann, E. Katz, J. Falter, H.-L. Schmidt J. Electroanal. Chem. 377 291-294 (1994).