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Enabling technologies for nanomaterial grafting and coating

Giancarlo Cravotto ,  Katia Martina ,  Emanuela Calcio Gaudino ,  Laura Orio 

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco (DSTF), Via P. Giuria 9, Torino 10125, Italy


The so called “enabling technologies” such as microwaves, ultrasound, ball milling, hydrodynamic and cavitational reactors, atmospheric plasma, dramatically changed the way we think of material grafting and coating. Besides an efficient heat and mass transfer, these techniques may generate high-energy micro-environments and hot spots that strongly enhance reactivity and reaction rates even at low temperature [1,2]. Although combined irradiation with these energy sources entails technical and safety considerations, sequential or simultaneous treatments can easily be performed on a lab and pilot scale with unexpected synergistic effects [3-5]. This has been described when dielectric heating is associated with the large amount of energy released in cavitational collapse, causing particle fragmentation and molecular excitation [6,7]. The cavitation-based mechanical effects, arise from shear forces, microjets and shock waves that occur outside the bubble, resulting in profound physical changes when solids or metals are present. These changes include improved mass transfer, particle size reduction, surface erosion and cleaning, and are often accompanied by changes in particle properties. Likewise, mechanochemistry can also generate radicals via the breaking of weak bonds and under extreme surface plasma conditions where covalent crystals are cracked by mechanical impact [8]. We experimented all these enabling technologies to graft carbon based nanomaterial [9-11], silica particles and fabric surfaces [12] with cyclodextrin derivatives [13]. Relationship and synergy among different energy sources for nanomaterial grafting and coating, may help to fully understand their features and great potential, highlighting, whenever possible, comparative aspects.

[1] Cravotto, G.;  Cintas, P. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2006, 35, 180.

[2] Cravotto G.; Calcio Gaudino E.; Cintas, P. Chem. Soc. Rev. 2013, 42, 7521.

[3] Tagliapietra, S.; Cravotto, G.; Calcio Gaudino, E.; et al.. Synlett 2012, 23, 1459.

[4] Cintas, P.; Carnaroglio, D., Rinaldi, L.; Cravotto, G. Chem. Today, 2012, 30, 33.

[5] Palmisano, G.; Bonrath, W.; Boffa, L.; et al. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2007, 349, 2338.

[6] Cravotto, G.;  Cintas P. Chem. Eur. J. 2007, 13, 1902.

[7] Cravotto, G.; Cintas, P. Chapt. 3. in Microwaves in Organic Synthesis, 3rd Ed. 2012, 541-562. Ed. by De La Hoz A. and Loupy A. Springer Science.

[8] Cravotto, G.; Cintas, P. Chem. Sci. 2012, 3, 295.

[9] Cravotto, G.; Cintas, P. Chem. Eur. J. 2010, 16, 5246.

[10] Cravotto, G.; Garella, D.; Calcio Gaudino, E. et al. New J. Chem. 2011, 35, 915.

[11] Tagliapietra, S.; Cravotto, G.; Calcio Gaudino, E.; et al. Synlett 2012, 23, 1459.

[12] Calcio Gaudino E., Tagliapietra S., et al. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2014, 12, 4708.

[13] Beltramo, L.; Sapino, S.; Binello, A. et al. J. Mat. Sci. 2011, 22, 2387.



Auxiliary resources (full texts, presentations, posters, etc.)
  1. PRESENTATION: Enabling technologies for nanomaterial grafting and coating, PDF document, version 1.5, 9MB
  2. CV: Note about author(s): Giancarlo Cravotto, Katia Martina, Emanuela Calcio Gaudino, Laura Orio, /home/db/data/upload/CV_Cravotto_+_photo.docx: sticky Zip archive data, at least v2.0 to extract, 0.6MB

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Related papers

Presentation: Keynote at Nano PL 2014, Symposium A, by Giancarlo Cravotto
See On-line Journal of Nano PL 2014

Submitted: 2014-06-30 15:23
Revised:   2014-11-18 13:54