Carbon- and metal-based nanocomposite films as substrates for the adhesion and growth of bone cells

Lucie Bacakova 1Lubica Grausova 1Marta Vandrovcova 1Katarina Novotna 1Alexander Kromka 2Jiri Vacik 3Hynek Biederman 4

1. Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physiology, Vídeňská 1084, Prague, Czech Republic
2. Czech Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Na Slovance 2, Prague 182-21, Czech Republic
3. Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI), Rez near Prague, Prague 25068, Czech Republic
4. Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague 12116, Czech Republic

Abstract

Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for artificial body implants, which support the regeneration of the damaged tissues and are well-integrated with the surrounding environments. Metallic bone implants often suffer for mechanical and biochemical incompatibility with the surrounding bone tissue, which can lead to the aseptic loosening of the bone tissue and the implant failure. Their anchorage in the bone tissue can be improved with mechanically resistant, chemically stable and biocompatible layers, especially those nanostructured. The nanoscale roughness and topography of the material surface is believed to mimic the nanoarchitecture of the natural extracellular matrix as well as the cell membrane, and thus such types of surfaces are usually attractive for the cell adhesion and growth. Moreover, these surfaces adsorb preferentially vitronectin, i.e. an extracellular matrix protein recognized preferentially by osteoblasts, and thus they can prevent a fibrous encapsulation of the bone implant. In our studies, we investigated the adhesion, growth, viability and osteogenic maturation of human bone-derived cells (represented by a cell line MG 63) in cultures on undoped and boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanocomposite hydrocarbon plasma polymer films with various concentrations of Ti. We found that the cell number, cell spreading area, formation of focal adhesion plaques, concentration of integrin adhesion molecules with alpha V or beta 1 chain, integrin-acssociated proteins talin and vinculin, as well as the concentration of osteocalcin and osteopontin, markers of osteogenic cell differentiation, in cells on these layers were similar or even higher than on standard polystyrene cell culture dishes. Even nanocomposite hydrocarbon plasma polymer films with 3 at% of Ag promoted cell adhesion, growth and formation of focal adhesion plaques without considerable cytotoxicity. At the same time, these layers attenuated growth of the bacterium E. coli. Also the layers of fullerenes C60 or binary composited or C60/Ti gave good supports for the adhesion and growth of MG 63 cells. Micropatterned layers of C60 or C60/Ti, i.e. deposited on the substrates through a metallic grid, promoted regionally-selective cell adhesion and growth in grooves among the prominences formed bellow the grid openings. Therefore, nanostructured and hierarchically micro- and nanostructured hard biocompatible and bioactive films are applicable not only for biomaterial coating but also as an interesting tool for investigating mechanisms controlling the cell behavior by cell-material interaction.

 

Supported by the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (Grants No. KAN101120701, KAN400480701, IAA400320901, IAAX00100902).

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Presentation: Oral at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2009, Symposium I, by Lucie Bacakova
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2009

Submitted: 2009-05-11 20:36
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:48
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