Assisted by the high coherence of synchrotron X-rays, radiography has reached a new level of sophistication and power. Phase contrast due to the difference in the refractive index is added to the absorption as anther, yet much improved, contrast mechanism. Together with the improvement in the detecting system, we can now looking deep inside into matters with unprecedented precision and speed. Sub-μm or better resolution radiograph can now be obtained with ease and in many cases fast phenomenon can be observed in a real time fashion. The application of this new tool has already helped researches in materials science, biology and medicine. Ongoing developments in the instrumentation and reconstruction algorithms have generated even higher excitement with the recent demonstration of nanometer scale resolution in 3D. It is anticipated that with the new installation of X-ray free electron laser, X-rays can be used to "image" a single protein molecule with atomic resolution in the near future and to continue the legacy started by Röntgen. Review of this advent of this technology, its application to various domains in science, the relevance to the medicine, nano-science and -technology, and the future potential will be presented.