The major properties of multi-layer composites as perspective structural and functional materials are reviewed in connection with the geometrical peculiarities of their structure. The structural-geometrical classification of one-dimensional composites is reduced. Heat conductivity and thermal expansion of laminated ceramic-metal composites taking in account the "heritable" thermal stresses are reviewed and the conditions of dividing into layers on inter-laminar boundaries are analysed. The special attention is given to anisotropy of laminated structures. The methods of calculation of effective values of electrical, thermal and elastic properties of one-dimensional composites along and across of layers are described, the estimations of top and bottom values of properties are reduced, the cases of deflection from an additivity of these properties are analysed. A special attention is paid to physical properties of multi-layer composites with nano-scale thickness of layers. Some features of fracture of ceramic-metal composites at static and impact loading and the perspectives of their using as impact-resistant and thermally stable refractory materials for parts of constructions under extreme thermal and mechanical conditions are reviewed.