The investigation of structural perfection and facetting in highly Er - doped Yb3Al5O12 crystals

Katarzyna B. Kołodziejak 1Wojciech Wierzchowski 1Tadeusz Łukasiewicz 1Michal Malinowski Krzysztof Wieteska 2Walter Graeff 3

1. Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME), Wólczyńska 133, Warszawa 01-919, Poland
2. Institute of Atomic Energy (IEA), Otwock-Świerk 05-400, Poland
3. Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor HASYLAB (HASYLAB), Notkestrasse 85, Hamburg D-22603, Germany


The Yb3Al5O12:Er crystals are interesting as promising material for lasers generating efficient emission in the near infrared range, working due to the upconversion mechanism. The trivalent erbium ion provide 2.94 mm line very useful for medical application and 1.55 mm for light guide communication. Due to the presence Yb3+ the metastable levels of Er3+ can be very effectively excited even by the radiation of much longer wavelengths. Yb3Al5O12 (YbAG) is of cubic symmetry and belongs to the space group Ia3d. It is isostructural with frequently used yttrium aluminum garnet with a lattice parameter 1% greater. In the laser applications a structural quality of the crystal is of great importance.

The presently investigated crystal with 0%, 1.5 at.%, 10 at.% and 30 at.% of erbium were grown by Czochralski method from iridium crucible. In order to obtain a good homogeneity of chemical composition and distribution of erbium, a relatively large rotation rate of the crystals was applied in the growth process, resulting in the convex growth surface. The structural perfection investigated by means of various synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods including monochromatic beam topography, observation of the rocking curves and topographic methods using white synchrotron white beam. The experiments were performed at E2 and F1 experimental stations in HASYLAB.

The most important observed defects were segregation fringes and growth facets. The monochromatic beam topographs confirmed low level of lattice parameter changes connected with the segregation of the erbium and low level of strains in the crystals The segregation fringes were, however, more distinct in crystals with higher erbium concentration. Only in one sample the monochromatic beam topography revealed some “rosettes”, which may be attributed to the dislocation outcrops.

The observed facets formed a characteristic patterns, dependent on the rotation rate of the crystals. The observed facets may be identified as corresponding to {221}, {211} and{301} planes. The first of them are usually forming a core, observed in the most of the crystals, sometimes neighbouring with {211}. The third type of crystals correspond to the planes inclined at 43 and occurs at highest rotation rate. The investigation of the facets was confirmed by the transmission section topographs, which allowed the location growth bands in the intersection of the sample with the synchrotron beam.


Legal notice
  • Legal notice:

    Copyright (c) Pielaszek Research, all rights reserved.
    The above materials, including auxiliary resources, are subject to Publisher's copyright and the Author(s) intellectual rights. Without limiting Author(s) rights under respective Copyright Transfer Agreement, no part of the above documents may be reproduced without the express written permission of Pielaszek Research, the Publisher. Express permission from the Author(s) is required to use the above materials for academic purposes, such as lectures or scientific presentations.
    In every case, proper references including Author(s) name(s) and URL of this webpage: must be provided.


Related papers
  1. Directionally solidified MnTiO3 –TiO2 eutectic as a potential material for photoelectrochemistry
  2. New Ca10Li(VO4)7 laser host: growth and properties
  3. Czochralski growth and characterization of MgAl2O4 single crystals
  4. Precise lattice parameter measurements of the Sr0.72Ba0.25Nb2O5.97 single crystals
  5. Characterization of the defect structure in gadolinium orthovanadate single crystals grown by the Czochralski method
  6. Topographic and reflectometric investigation of 4H silicon carbide epitaxial layer deposited at various growth rates
  7. Synchrotron topographic studies of domain structure in Czochralski grown PrxLa1-xAlO3 crystals
  8. Evaluation of the depth extension of the damages induced by FLASH pulses in silicon crystals
  9. Damage of gallium arsenide created after irradiation by ultra-short VUV laser pulse
  10. Transparent Nd:YAG ceramics sintered from nanometric powders- effect of co-precipitation temperature on powder sinterability
  11. Low-temperature structural properties of orthorhombic TbAlO3, TmAlO3 and LuAlO3 perovskites
  12. Influence of Nd dopants to change of lattice parameters in YVO4 single crystals.
  13. Growth and microstructure of ZnO – Bi2O3 eutectic
  14. Observation of individual dislocations in 6h and 4h sic by means of back-reflection methods of x-ray diffraction topography
  15. Synchrotron topographic investigation of SiC bulk crystals and epitaxial layers
  16. Self-organized microstructure of TiO2-MnO
  17. Growth and microstructures of ZnO – WO3 and TiO2 – WO3 eutectic crystals
  18. Observation of defects in g - irradiated Cz-si annealed under high pressure
  19. Self- organized eutectic microstructures for photonic crystals and metamaterials
  20. X-ray characterization of Sr0.61Ba0.39Nb2O6 single crystals
  21. Growth and investigation of optical properties of YAG:Co,Si single crystals.
  22. Growth and characterization of YAG single crystals doped with large concentration of vanadium.
  23. Ferroelectric and relaxor properties of strontium-barium niobate
  24. X-ray topography of Ca0.5Sr0.5NdAlO4 single crystal
  25. Preparation and sintering of nanometric oxides and YAG powders derived from nitrates by precipitation and co-precipitatin method
  26. Investigation of insulated buried layers obtained by ion implantation in AlGaAs with various Al concentration
  27. Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction studies of silicon implanted with high energy Ar ions after thermal annealing

Presentation: Poster at Joint Fith International Conference on Solid State Crystals & Eighth Polish Conference on Crystal Growth, by Katarzyna B. Kołodziejak
See On-line Journal of Joint Fith International Conference on Solid State Crystals & Eighth Polish Conference on Crystal Growth

Submitted: 2007-01-22 14:23
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44