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Thermal properties of the 650-nm GaInP/AlGaInP quantum-well GaAs-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers

Łukasz Piskorski ,  Robert P. Sarzała ,  Włodzimierz Nakwaski 

Technical University of Łódź, Institute of Physics, Wólczańska 219, Łódź 93005, Poland


Short-wavelength lasing emission, especially that of 650 nm, may be applied in many various devices. Because of their wavelength much shorter than the wavelength of 850 nm of radiation emitted by standard arsenide diode lasers used in compact disks (CDs), they ensure much higher density of information in recording systems on digital versatile disks (DVDs). Analogously, the 650-nm radiation is widely used in laser printers. This radiation is also used in many branches of medicine, e.g. in photodynamic therapy. But the most important its application is associated with communication networks taking advantage of plastic (polymer) optical fibres (POFs) [1], for which the minimal optical attenuation corresponds to the 650-nm wavelength. Because of relatively great POF mechanical flexibility and additionally their much larger core For relatively short distances and moderate data rates, POFs are currently the lowest cost media to use for optical interconnect and the simplest to connectorize. There are still, however, some problems to produce proper high-performance sources of the carrier wave used in this communication networks.

Vertical-cavity surface-emission diode lasers (VCSELs) compose the most suited laser configuration for fibre application. Their 650-nm emitting active regions may be the GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells (QWs). Hence the GaAs-based oxide-confined (OC) VCSELs with the above QWs [2] seem currently to be the best designs for the POF-based fibre optical communication.

POF optical communication may be used in cars, planes and ships. Therefore it should be resistant to some possible temperature increases. Accordingly, the main goal of this work is to examine thermal properties of the 650-nm AlGaInP VCSELs with the aid of a modified version of our comprehensive self-consistent model [3] simulating VCSEL operation. For increasing active-region temperatures, an increase in the VCSEL threshold current has happened to be mostly associated with the carrier leakage from the G valley of the Ga0.43In0.57P quantum-well material to the X-valley of the (Al0.67Ga0.33)0.52In0.48P spacers. Nevertheless, the AlGaInP VCSELs have been found to exhibit splendid thermal behaviour with the characteristic temperature T0 equal to 134 K for temperature increases up to 357 K. For 5-mm devices, maximal achievable output is decreased from 1.0 mW for 293 K to 0.6 mW for 320 K and to 0.33 mW for 340 K.

In conclusion, GaAs-based oxide-confined GaInP/AlGaInP VCSELs have been found to offer very promising performance at elevated temperatures as sources of the carrier 650-nm wave in the fibre communication using POFs.

The authors would like to acknowledge support from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MNiSzW), grant No 3-T11B-073-29.


[1] K. Ohdoko, T. Ishigure, and Y. Koike, IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 17 (2005) 79
[2] A. Knigge et al., IEE Proc.-Optoelectron. 150 (2003) 110
[3] R. P. Sarzała and W. Nakwaski, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 (2004) S3121


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Submitted: 2007-01-13 22:47
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44