Analysis of Chlorobenzenes in Environmental Water Samples using Microwave-Assisted with Ionic-Liquids Liquid-Phase Microextraction

Lorena Vidal 1Antonio Canals 1Elefteria E. Psillakis Frank Marken 2Nuria Grané 

1. University of Alicante, Ctra. San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, Alicante 03080, Spain
2. University of Bath, Department of Chemistry, Claverton Down, Bath BA2-7AY, United Kingdom


Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) are the most commonly used sample pre-treatment methods for the isolation and/or enrichment of chlorobenzenes. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is an alternative preconcentration method for aqueous samples in which analytes partition between the stationary phase on a SPME fibre and the sample is achieved after equilibrium. An interesting and recently introduced alternative to traditional extraction techniques is liquid-phase microextraction (LPME), which is based on the miniaturisation of the traditional liquid-liquid extraction method by greatly reducing the solvent to aqueous ratio. This is performed by using a single-drop of organic solvent or a small length of porous hollow fiber-protected solvent.

Headspace single-drop microextraction (SDME) has proved to be rapid, inexpensive, simple, precise, virtually solventless and sensitive technique for the analysis of chlorobenzenes in water samples, representing an excellent alternative to traditional and other recently introduced methods1.

The present work investigates, for the first time, the possibility of using microwave to assist the microextraction of eight chlorobenzenes in water samples. In addition, ionic liquids will be evaluated to generate the single-drop, to produce the microextraction on headspace modality.

Experimental variables will be evaluated and optimized by means of experimental design and the optimized method will be validated with real samples.

Keywords:Chlorinated benzenes; headspace SDME; ionic liquid; microwaves; water analysis.

Acknowledgements: The authors would like to thank the financial support of the Spanish Government (projects n. DPI2002-04305-C02-01, PTR1995-0581-OP-02-01, PROFIT2004-23-122 and CAL03-078-C3-2). L.V also thanks Vicerrectorado de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación of University of Alicante for her scholarship and COST (European Science Foundation, EU) for her grant.

[1]L. Vidal, A. Canals, N. Kalogerakis, E. Psilakis (2005), J. Chromatogr. A, 1089: 25-30.


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Presentation: Poster at COST action D32 Mid term evaluation meeting, by Lorena Vidal
See On-line Journal of COST action D32 Mid term evaluation meeting

Submitted: 2006-03-27 09:35
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44