Women's labor force participation rate had been considerably increased in the 20th century. Although they have become a significant workforce their situation at the labor market situation differs from that of men. We can specify two main fields where these differences are especially visible: structure of employment and wages. Differences in structure of employment we can observe through such phenomena as:
- Women are more likely than men to work in the public sector (see e.g. Barón and Cobb-Clark 2008, Anghel et al. 2011, Mayer 2014).
- Women are more likely to undertake part-time job (see e.g. Gash et al. 2010, Bardasi and Gornick 2000, Elias 1990).
- Women are more likely to undertake lower paid jobs (job positions, see e.g. Casale 2004).
- Women are more likely to work on the certain positions (such as e.g. officials, office workers, service workers) and in specific economic sectors (such as education, health and social services, e.g. Banerjee 2014).
-In the labour market exists a phenomenon called "glass ceiling". This refers to the situation when women are blocked in accessing to high-level positions and corporate boards (see e.g. Morgan 1998, Forster 1999, Kee 2006, Arulampalam et al. 2007).
Statistical evidence demonstrates that women earn less than men. Eurostat estimated that in 2013 in the EU women earned on average 16.6%. The level of the gender wage gap affect, inter alia, differences in the men and women structure of employment. It is necessary to mentioned that gender inequalities vary among e.g. EU countries, economic sectors, age group, et cetera.
Authorities in the European Union have been carried out a number of activities to equalize opportunities for women in the labor market, e.g. formulation of Strategy for equality between women and men 2010-2015 among others. In presented research particular attention is paid to Baltic Sea region states because they are the macroregion, for which was constructed a separate strategy (The European Union Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region) and financial support programs (e.g. Interreg Baltic Sea Region).
The main aim of the presentation is to examine and discuss reasons of men's and women's inactivity in the labour market in Baltic Sea Region states. Provided analysis focuses on female participation in the labor market and gender wage gap. Analyses are based on the data collected within the framework of Labour Force Surveys (LFS). There are applied descriptive statistical tools, statistical tests and multivariate statistical analysis.