Liquid Nanometals Dispersions For Polymers Modification and Biocatalist of Microbial Fuel Cells

Ludmila Kisterska 1Olga B. Loginova 1Vitaliy V. Sadokhin 1Olena V. Ischenko 2Oleksandr I. Biliy 3

1. V. Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials NAS of Ukraine, 2, Autozavodska str., Kiev 04074, Ukraine
2. Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Volodymyrska str., 62a, Kiev 01033, Ukraine
3. Ivan Franko National University, 50 Dragomanov Str., Lviv, Ukraine

Abstract

Application of Nano Metals additives for modification of end products to upgrade their consumer’s properties is the main trend now in multiple industrial fields. Despite substantial concerns  about their ecological integration the Nano Metals additives were widely used for upgrading antibacterial properties of medical equipment and disposable materials treatment, self cleaning paints and plastics for contact surfaces, antibacterial sport and military clothing, food packaging and processing, antifouling treatment of underwater ship parts, upgrading of electro conductive properties of electronic ink and dozen of other industrial applications. The Nanometals additives are the largest group of whole nanomaterials market  which was conservatively estimated to grow from 31,574 tons in 2010  to 44, 267 tons in 2016 [1].The most spectacular  market volume grow  was demonstrated for Nano Silver applications, specifically in the field of food packaging: from $410 mln in 2010 to $5800 mln in 2012 due to substantial food shelf life prolongation via upgrading of packaging antibacterial properties[2].

Most industrially produced metal nanoparticles are dry powders, so they require sequential processes of colloid chemistry to convert them into liquid solutions: wetting by carrier liquids, breaking agglomerates by different techniques and additional chemical for stabilizing them in suspension.  To solve this problem the researchers worldwide are working on new technologies of  cheap nanoadditive mass production, mostly on liquid-based dispersion or colloidal solutions, which may be added by simple mixing to consumer end products without radical change of their traditional manufacturing processes. The stability of the active non organic nano particles and  the method of their delivery (nano metals payload)  to the end products are the key problems to be resolved  for nanoadditives wide practical application. That is why the “muster-butch” approach  -  the way of encapsulation of the active ingredients ( metal nanoparticles)  in concentrated form in liquid media, storing them in stable condition and then mixing with  end product– is the most perspective way of wide commercialization of  metal nanoparticles.

The Joint Venture  “Marketing of Superhard Materials” – spin-off company from V.Bakul  Superhard Materials Institute NAS Ukraine – is  introducing a new combined “dry-wet” technology of stable concentrated metal nanoparticles dispersions (“muster-butches”) manufacturing by physical plasma dispersion in vacuum with one-step technological cycle of implanting them in various  liquid media placed to the same vacuum chamber. Core competence of proposed technology is manufacturing of effective highly concentrated nano dispersions of multiple metals as Ag, Au, Pt, Pd, Fe, Cu  etc. in various carrier liquids which are  the most common ingredients of the modern household  or technical end products. So, these liquid nano dispersions  can be easily mixed with end products without changing of traditional manufacturing processes for upgrading their functional properties.                                                                    .

 As hundred of end products consist food Glycerin as technological ingredient, the concentrated nanometals additives in Glycerin were developed. One of these nano additives is a new product “Silver Shield-1000”. It is the concentrated (100 mg/liter) stable muster–butch of  Ultra clean Nano Silver particles with controlled size distribution 25-50 nm ( about 70% of nano particles). The semi-industrial pilot unit with the productivity of 6 ton per year (one shift regimen)  is capable to supply the customers with substantial volume of concentrated nano Silver dispersion.  The physical-chemical properties of nano metals dispersions (master-butches) are well controlled and repeatable, which is supported by multiple studies of independent laboratories in USA, Germany, China and Israel. The stability of concentrated nanometal dispersions is proved for not less then 12 months. The whole process of manufacturing is provided in vacuum chamber and has no pollutions to environment. The metal nano particles are ultra clean and have no oxidation due to implantation in liquid media in vacuum right after their dispersions by plasma jet. The use of Silver nanoparticles in proposed low dosage are safe to people and pets (they are toxic only to one-cell bacteria) which is proved by special toxicological passport issued by professional researchers from the Institute of Toxicology and Eco-Hygiene of Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine. Efficiency  of the product “Silver Shield-1000” in comparison with colloidal Silver made by the best US manufacturer is proved by special studies and economic advantages is shown in Table 1. This muster-butch can be simply mixed in required low quantity with hospital soap, shampoo, tooth paste and dozens of personal hygiene products. For low release it can be added to water based paint or used for impregnation of surgical plasters or disposable  masks or napkins.

Table 1. Comparative properties of  colloidal Silver made in USA

with new nanoproduct “Silver Shield-1000”

 

Product Name & PPM on Label

PPM
(from Lab Report)

Particle Surface

Area cm2/mL

Price

cents/mL

Sovereign Silver 10 ppm

9.71

0.217

50,70

Ultra Pure Colloidal Silver 35 ppm

16.5

0.225

30,35

Argentyn 23 - 23 ppm

15.7

0.355

50,70

American Biotech Labs - ASAP 22 ppm

22.3

0.587

69,20

ElectraClear Colloidal Silver 10 ppm

26.4

0.662

20,74

«Silver Shield-1000»  *  100ppm

100,0

0.679

12,50

 

*It shall be stressed that “Silver Shield-1000” is  nano Silver dispersion (not ionic)  in Glycerin (not in water, so it has  evidently more expensive media ) but the price and the properties are comparable with the best analog of US product [3].

The proposed combined “wet-dry” plasma dispersion technology and semi-industrial unit allows to manufacture the tailored master-batches of such nano metals as Au, Pt, Pd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ti, etc  dispersed in   Natural  or  Synthetic  oils, Monomers, Polysaccharides, Petroleum  derivatives, etc. The ready to use liquid dispersions are easily mixable with end products.  For example, the nano Silver (or nano Copper) could be loaded to monomers for  manufacturing of self sterilized  food packaging films and biopolymer materials.  The respective nanoadditives could be supplied by JV"MSM" in industrial volume.

            The new and perspective application field is using of metal nano additives for  the  sustainable energy production   from  biodegradable  and  reduced compounds.  Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) technologies are a promising approach to wastewater treatment as the treatment process can become a method of capturing energy in the form of electricity or hydrogen gas and removing wastes simultenuousely. The  substrates  used  in  MFCs  range  from  carbohydrates  (e.g.  glucose, sucrose, cellulose, starch), alcohols (e.g. ethanol, methanol), amino acids, proteins and even inorganic components such as sulfides or acid mine drainages. Evidently the type of bacteria and substrate fed to MFC is a subject of intensive research all over the world. Ukrainian researchers  studied the impact of substrate on the structure and composition of the microbial community and have proposed the respective types of bacteria for MFC with effective wastewater treatment and increased power generation. Scientists from I. Franco Lviv University found that the multifold intensification of electricity  produced by MFC can be reached by using nano Fe dispersions (supplied by JV”MSM”) which is responsible to intensify oxidation [5].

So, the new combined “dry-wet” technology allows to produce in industrial volume the stable concentrated Metal Nanoparticles dispersions (“muster-butches”) in liquid ingredients which is a common part of dozens end products. Also these dispersions can be used as the catalysts  for new energy sources. It is paving a way for commercialization of nanometals additives and open an opportunity to compete at the forefront of the additive manufacturing revolution, which in the long term will lead into entire new production and consumption paradigms.

LITERATURE

1. Nanomaterials Production 2002-2016: Production Volumes, Revenues and End User Market Demand, Future Markets, Inc, 2011.  

2. Friends of the Earth United States –

   http://www.foe.org/healthypeople/nanotechnologycampaign

3. Scientific Information on Colloidal Silver, http://www.silver-

    colloids.com/Reports/reports.html

4. Improving effect of metal and oxide nanoparticles encapsulated in porous silica on

    fermentative biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum; Laurent Beckers a, Serge

    Hiligsmann a, Styphanie D. Lambert b, Benoоt Heinrichs b, at all

     a Centre Wallon de Biologie Industrielle (CWBI), Dйpartement des Sciences de la Vie, B40, Universitй    de Liиge,B-4000 Liиge, Belgium  

    b Laboratoire de Ganie Chimique, B6a, University de Liege, B-4000 Liege, Belgium

5.The Anode Biocatalyst with Simultaneous Transition Metals Pollution Control, Microbial

    Fuel Cell,p.14-20, Oleksandr Bilyy, Oresta Vasyliv and  Svitlana Hnatush, Lviv, 2014.

 

Auxiliary resources (full texts, presentations, posters, etc.)
  1. PRESENTATION: Liquid Nanometals Dispersions For Polymers Modification and Biocatalist of Microbial Fuel Cells, PDF document, version 1.5, 4.9MB
  2. CV: Note about author(s): Ludmila Kisterska, Olga B. Loginova, Vitaliy V. Sadokhin, Olena V. Ischenko, Oleksandr I. Biliy, PDF document, version 1.5, 0MB
 

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Presentation: Invited Oral at Nano PL 2014, Symposium B, by Ludmila Kisterska
See On-line Journal of Nano PL 2014

Submitted: 2014-06-29 01:02
Revised:   2014-11-18 15:32