Chemical and physical functionalization targeting at the application of carbon-based materials as chemical sensors

Jerzy P. Lukaszewicz 

Nicolaus Copernicus University, Faculty of Chemistry (WChUMk), Gagarina 7, Toruń 87-100, Poland

Abstract

Chemical sensors have become one of the most important branches of contemporary science and technology. Recently there is growing interest in the application of fullerenes and carbon nanotubes in chemical sensors. However, the terms “carbon”, “carbon-based” or “carbon-type” is not limited to fullerenes and nanotubes but also applicable to graphite, carbon black, glassy carbon, or active carbon. The aim of this paper is to review the basic types of carbon-based materials, selected methods of “carbon” preparation, and the most recent announcements on application of carbon-based materials to chemical sensing. We intend to show how the chemical properties of the carbon surface can be controlled, and how the properties influence possible application of “carbons” to the construction of chemical sensors. The paper describes:
- types of carbon-based materials and the methods of their preparation,
- chemical functionalization of carbon surfaces including CNTs,
- porosity of various carbons as a kind physical functionalization,
- basic electric properties of carbons.
All above mentioned preparative procedures are considered in light of the application of different carbon-based materials to chemical sensors. Special attention is paid to the application of carbon nanotubes to chemical sensing of gases and vapors of relatively strong acceptor and donor properties. The interaction with more (chemically) inert molecules with CNTs is presented, too. Carbon-based sensors of several types are considered: chemoresitors, mass sensitive devices and electrodes. The considered chemical functionalization of carbon-based sensing materials includes: formation of surface oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, water solubilization, polymer grafting, inorganic oxide “wrapping”, implantation of cations, metallization, fabrication of composite materials incorporating different carbon–based materials and binders, bio-functionalization (DNA-modification, enzyme-modification, protein-modification). Beside CNTs (multi-walled and single-walled), sensing properties of polycrystalline semiconductor carbon films is considered in detail.

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Presentation: Tutorial lecture at SMCBS'2007 International Workshop, by Jerzy P. Lukaszewicz
See On-line Journal of SMCBS'2007 International Workshop

Submitted: 2007-08-31 22:36
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44
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