Nanotechnology and nanomaterials become popular at the construction of devices such as chemical sensors, biosensors, electromechanical and analytical systems, diagnostic instruments, etc. as they enable manipulations on the supramolecular level. Nanomaterials characterized by at least one dimension smaller than 100 nm possess new possibilities of controlling the properties of signal transducers, new signal transduction technologies, new matrices for immobilization of biomolecules, redox mediators, markers, indicators, etc., and leads to lowering the detection limits. Nanomaterials are also of interest for miniaturization of the sensors and preparation of nanoelectrode arrays and offer new environmental, biomedical and in vivo applications.
Nanomaterial structures involve, for example, carbon or metal nanotubes, nanoshells, nanofibers, other carbon nanostructures such as fullerenes and diamonds, nanorods and nanowires, nanoscale assemblies, nanoclusters and nanoparticles, as well as nanocomposites. In this paper, examples of the chemical modification of the surface of electrochemical and optical sensors by nanomaterials as well as by recognition elements with nanomaterials as the markers will be presented together with its effects on the sensitivity and selectivity of chemical analysis.
Acknowledgement: The work was supported by the Grant Agency VEGA of the Ministry of Education of Slovakia (Project No. 1/2462/05) and the Ministry of Education of the Slovakia (Application Research Project).